I want to get before your mind, the notion of empirically equivalent theories. Two theories are “empirically equivalent” just in case they’re consistent with the same observations. So if two theories are empirically equivalent, there can be no observation, in principal, that counts in favor of one of those theories vs. the other. Now, the claim that “I am my brain” and the claim that “I am a soul that uses my brain” are empirically equivalent claims. There is no scientific test, there is no empirical observation that can be used to decide which of those are true.
– J.P. Moreland, “The Existence of the Soul”